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Apigenin powder promotes the extrarenal excretion of uric acid

Jul 06, 2022

Apigenin is one of the main monomeric flavonoids found in daily diet. Apigenin powder or its glycosides can be degraded into smaller metabolites by some intestinal bacteria, thus playing a regulatory role on the body.

Flavonoids are phytochemicals called polyphenols, which are secondary metabolites produced by plants. By producing flavonoids, plants have defense mechanisms to resist UV-B and microbial infection.

Apigenin powder is widely distributed in the plant kingdom and found in many vegetables, herbs and fruits. Plants that have been identified to contain apigenin include Red Sorghum and white sorghum, turnip cabbage, orange, kumquat, onion, malt, tea and coriander.


A 2017 study showed that the daily intake of apigenin in the Chinese population was 0-4.23 mg / d. Apigenin is a mild antioxidant compound. Its biological functions include antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti proliferation and so on.

Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of apigenin powder 

▷ Absorption

Before apigenin enters the systemic circulation and liver, the gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in the metabolism and binding of apigenin.

▷ Distribution

In the experiments of rats injected and orally administered apigenin, it was shown that apigenin was distributed in blood, kidney, intestine, liver, urine and feces, indicating that apigenin can circulate throughout the body and regulate the body.

▷ Metabolism

Apigenin undergoes extensive phase I and phase II metabolism: enzymes involved in phase I metabolism include NADPH, P450 enzyme or FMO enzyme; Phase II biotransformation involves intestinal and enterohepatic circulation. In the first pass metabolism of apigenin, intestinal configuration may be more important than liver configuration.

▷ Excretion

The experiment of excretion through urine and feces after oral intake of apigenin shows that dietary apigenin can be used for the metabolism of intestinal microbiota.


Under physiological conditions, two-thirds of uric acid (UA), which causes hyperuricemia, is discharged from the kidney, and its extrarenal excretion is mainly realized through the intestine. As the largest organ in the human body, the intestine has great potential for uric acid excretion.

Studies have confirmed that increasing the abundance of intestinal bacterial groups related to SCFA production can promote the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), thereby inhibiting the activity of xanthine oxidase (XOD) in serum and liver, which can alleviate hyperuricemia in mouse models.

Apigenin powder, as one of the main monomeric flavonoids found in daily diet, not only plays its anti-inflammatory effect, but also regulates the microbial gut brain axis.intake of apigenin is beneficial to the diversity of intestinal microbiota. At the same time, it is found in the detection of microbial metabolites that apigenin enhances the production of three major SCFAs. SCFAs can regulate the function of intestinal epithelial cells and reduce inflammation. Therefore, it is speculated that apigenin also plays a beneficial role in the extrarenal excretion of uric acid.


At present, the way of reducing uric acid is mainly realized through the kidney, and the intestine is the second largest uric acid excretion organ. Apigenin plays a beneficial role in promoting uric acid excretion, improving renal function and reducing inflammatory reaction. Rich in apigenin, melatonin, myricetin and dihydromyricetin, suitable for daily drinking.

Apigenin powder

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