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This protein, with a better thoughtful name, is called osteonectin and also basal membrane perlecan-40 because it is encoded by the SPARC gene, from which it is named.
The genes in our cells, which are autosomal in origin, are all in the same set and are no more than somewhat non-expressed. Specific cells express only specific functions.
SPARC is normally done by osteoblasts. But sometimes fibroblasts do it, even at the time of wound repair, some macrophages do it.
So what exactly does SPARC do? Its core function is responsible for bone mineralization, cell-matrix interaction, and collagen binding. But in some special cases, it can also play more functions, such as regulating the shape and function of epithelial cells and promoting the repair of extracellular matrix in the process of wound repair.
The reason why it has so many functions is that it has made such reserves:
Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine
in Ocular Tissue, JOURNAL OF OCULAR PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS, Volume 31, Number 7, 2015
SPARC protein has three domains, which perform different functions. In the above figure, the part framed in the blue oval is the protagonist of our series:
That is, the short peptide GHK is released by the protein SPARC. During wound repair, to fight external injuries while repairing tissue, SPARC sends GHK out with a rubric, and one is many more.
If you think of SPARC as a search for interstellar ships:
GHK was the signal army that he put out:
And what will be done after this group of signalmen is put out? This is something Pickart's series of literature presents one by one.
In the literature, the skin turnover cycle (a figure to understand the Copper Peptide Raw Material mechanism)
There are 2 main things:
After the skin is damaged, after which steps, the complete reconstruction
At which step copper peptides are released, and at each subsequent step, how can they do.
The outer ring is in 2 halves:
The red half on the right, which speaks of the process of skin from injury to wound closure, is relatively fast, generally days to weeks.
The blue half on the left, speaks to the process of tissue reconstruction to return to health, which is relatively long, lasting months, even years.
The role of copper peptide raw material is to convey the signal of the command to each process to ensure that the whole process is accurate and rapid. Because once the wartime is prolonged, the tissue may fall into a chronic inflammatory state, and the wound may not be closed, and eventually slide into the abyss.
Copper peptide is not always running with [copper ion], but sometimes appears in the form of tripeptide GHK and sometimes in the form of GHK- Cu.
It is another important thing in this picture:
After GHK is released by SPARC, only 5-20% of GHK will take copper ions and become GHK Cu. As a carrier of copper ions, GHK Cu will bring needed cells and proteins.
Copper ion itself is also very important and is necessary for all major tissues and organs of our body:
The functions of other organs will not be discussed. In the skin, you should remember that there are two very important enzymes, one is collagen synthase, and the other is melanin synthase. Both require copper ions to function.
Therefore, in addition to transmitting signals by itself, GHK can also chelate copper ions to form GHK Cu, bringing copper ions to places where they are needed.
Whether there is copper or not, GHK is a good hand and a very efficient signal soldier.
Every time the signal soldiers arrive at a place, they will mobilize there and call reinforcements to reinforce the battlefield.
Under physiological conditions, there is no such fierce battle, but we are always exposed to internal and external chronic injuries, such as ultraviolet rays, free radicals, pollution, and so on.
Therefore, there will always be a certain concentration of GHK in our plasma, 24 × 7. Patrol the ground to ensure that the body is in a healthy and stable state.
However, with aging, the level of GHK in our body will go down all the way, which is also the underlying reason why we need an exogenous supplement of GHK.