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How do ginsenosides work?

Feb 24, 2021

Ginsenosides are the main active ingredients of ginseng. They are tetracyclic triterpene dammarane type compounds, which can be divided into ginsengdiol type (ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, Rd, Rg3, Rh2, etc.) and ginseng triol Type (Ginsenoside Re, Rg1, Rg2, Rh1, etc.).

In recent years, research reports on the antiviral aspects of ginseng monomer saponins become more, which also proved that ginsenosides can directly kill the virus, interfere with the signal transduction pathway of infected cells, and block the process of viral infection.


1. Against influenza virus

Scientists explored the effect of ginsengdiol saponins and interferon mixture (IFN-PDS) on the function of T lymphocytes in mice infected with pulmonary influenza virus. The results showed that IFN-PDS has a two-way regulatory effect on T lymphocyte function and can increase influenza on the one hand. Virus-infected mouse spleen lymphocytes have their own proliferative reactivity. On the other hand, it has an inhibitory effect on the excessive proliferation of spleen and thymocytes induced by concanavalin A.

2.Against swine influenza H9N2

Through observation to explore the ability and mechanism of ginsenoside Rb1 to antagonize the virus that mainly attacks the lungs. The results show that Rb1 has the effect of eliminating free radicals in lung tissues induced by viruses, and reducing the oxidative damage of free radicals to lung tissues.

Ginsenosides against influenza virus                                 swine-flu-swine-influenza

3.Anti-H3N2 influenza A virus

Research results show that ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 can reduce the level of ROS production in virus-infected cells, reduce the transcriptional activity of oxidative stress-sensitive signaling pathways Nn-cB and AP-1, and inhibit the downstream target genes IL-8 of both expression. The study evaluated the adjuvant effect of ginsenoside Re on the immune response of mice induced by lysis and inactivation of H3N2 influenza virus antigen. The results show that ginsenoside Re can significantly increase serum specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b responses, HI titer, lymphocyte proliferation response, and secretion of IFN-γ and IL-5.

4.Anti-respiratory syncytial virus

HPLC/MS was used to analyze the main components of ginseng total saponin and its drug serum, and the results showed that compared with the HEp-2 cell group not infected with RSV, the level of IFN-α and other cellular inflammatory factors in the virus control group was 24, 48, 72 h after infection Increased; after infection in the total ginsenoside group, the levels of IFN-α, IL-1β, IL-8, TLR3 and TLR7 decreased in the same time period. This indicates that the total glycoside extract of Fuzheng Jiedu Huayu Decoction may play a role in the treatment of RSV-infected pneumonia by regulating TLRs-related cell inflammatory factors and inhibiting cell inflammatory response.

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