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What Are The Main Signaling Pathways That Regulate Melanin Biosynthesis?

Mar 28, 2022

Melanin is an important factor affecting human skin color, and the biosynthesis of melanin occurs in melanosomes (melanin granules) in melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis. The key enzymes of melanin biosynthesis, tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related protein (TRP), are first synthesized in the Golgi and transported to the melanosome, where they catalyze the synthesis of melanin and store it, and then, melanosomes carrying melanin are transported to keratinocytes.

melanin

The regulation of melanin biosynthesis is an intricate process that can be regulated at different levels. More than 150 genes are involved in the regulation of pigmentation. Some genes affect important developmental processes in melanoblasts, while others regulate melanocyte survival and differentiation.

In cells, the main signaling pathways that regulate melanin biosynthesis are α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced signaling pathway, PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and SCF/c-kit-mediated MAPK signaling pathway, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, NO/cGMP signaling pathway, and signaling pathway mediated by cytokines, transcription factor PAX3, and liver X receptor.

main signaling pathways that regulate melanin biosynthesis

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